Community Centred Media

yet more evidence… radio changes lives!

How a radio project dramatically improved the lives of communities in conflict…

By Dr Ross James, Founder, Health Communication Resources 

Community Radio Volunteers visit communities in Magindnaon Province, Mindanao, Philippines

Community Radio Volunteers visit communities in Magindnaon Province, Mindanao, Philippines

An evaluation [1] of HCR’s community-centred radio model in an area of violent conflict, has shown that it led to significant improvements in the community.

Background

The communities of Magindanaon province in Mindanao, Philippines, have experienced sustained conflict, disadvantage and disempowerment. Radio Gandingan (RG) has quietly transformed minority Maguindanaon communities, severely affected by decades of armed struggle for political autonomy involving multiple state, civil, political, religious and armed actors. RG began broadcasting in 2000 as a weekly one-hour radio program with airtime purchased from a local commercial radio station but expanded in 2004 to two and a half hours of purchased airtime, spread over five evenings each week. Following the storming of Marawi City in north Mindanao by ISIS-aligned fighters who attacked key government buildings, churches and schools, RG volunteers provided evacuees with field reports, updates and information provided by government and non-government (NGO) service providers. Local communities claimed RG was more trustworthy than other sources of information, because of RG’s demonstrated compassion and credibility through community-centered activities. 

We wanted to understand the processes that led to RG being regarded in this way. We analysed reliable research data collected in the period 2005 to 2009 using realist evaluation, or RE [2].  This method analyses how people within a context respond to mechanisms, such as components or resources, that bring about change. In other words understanding the context is very important, as are the mechanisms that can influence change.

The context of the six communities associated with RG was very complex.  Communities were isolated from health and development service providers and suffered from ill health due to poor hygiene.  There was high unemployment, a poor environment and tension between neighbours and within families.  Ordinary people were further excluded from decision-making, with little access to information resulting in low self-confidence and disempowerment.

What We Found

When we looked at the data we found stories and explanations of how RG’s role had promoted dialogue, and improved livelihood and community participation. Specifically, dialogue had resolved community conflict and strengthened family bonds and relationships, and improved communication and understanding between community leaders and community members; livelihood had improved with behaviours and practices that led to better protection of the environment, livelihood, health, community cohesion and unity; and community participation was better through involvement in the RG radio program, and increased participation and communication in community meetings. 

RG trained 18 Community Radio Volunteers (CRVs), residents in the six communities, to participate in community-centered radio programming. RG programs modelled dialogue that extended into community discourse, social learning and decision-making processes of married couples. Dramas prompted family communication about values such as honesty and tolerance. One man said ‘I’ve learned from the drama that wives have a great role in the family so I should appreciate their hard work’. RG programs resolved a conflict between duck owners and rice farmers (ducks ate the farmers’ rice), and inspired leaders to reconcile two families quarrelling over land. 

People said RG made them aware of harmful practices to environmental resources, such as cutting down trees, and using dynamite or poison for fishing. A project to install community toilets was organised in one community after they had used an RG program to identify cleanliness as a problem. One lady reported that her children began washing in the evening: “I didn’t ask them, it’s RG who taught them of this health practice”.   Another person spoke of better community relationships because of RG: “Our corn used to be stolen before we were able to harvest it. But now we do not fear because no one steals them anymore. The youths who used to give us problems stopped doing bad things”. 

Community members participated in radio programs on health, livelihood or community issues. Community leaders were given opportunities to discuss issues on air with community members and for the first time women, people living with disability and those with little education were included.  

Why is this A BIG DEAL?

Radio programming is a widely recognised communication strategy for health and social development internationally. Community radio provides advocacy, education and information in a diverse range of initiatives for public health and disease, democracy and politics, peacebuilding, empowerment of women, human rights and so on. 

However, and this is a big however, such approaches rely on the skills of professional media workers and service providers, as well as wide-scale, well-funded systematic community development interventions. Participatory communication along the lines of RG does not easily fit the mindset of big funders who shy away from politics or power-dynamics in communities.  And so they limit communication to the dissemination of messages and evaluate message-related factors such as audience reach, message comprehension and recall.

This study is evidence that a local level community-centred radio and their volunteers is powerful way facilitating dialogue, livelihood and participatory communication outcomes in contexts characterised by sustained conflict, disadvantage and disempowerment. 

If you would like to learn more about this project, about Realistic Evaluation (RE) practice or take part in a webinar on RE, then please contact us via our contact page.

[1] Original Article: R James, E Romo-Murphy, M Oczon-Quirante. A Realist Evaluation of a Community-Centered Radio Initiative for Health and Development in Mindanao, Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health DOI: 10.1177/1010539519870661

[2] There is not enough space to fully explain RE in this blog. A good starting point is the classic text: Pawson R, Tilley N. Realistic Evaluation. London: SAGE Publications; 1997.

Sunda Sar (Skull of a bull)

by Hazeen Latif

Whatever we asked, the reply was:

“no, we do not have it”, “no one listens to us”, “no one comes to us” or “no one is willing to help us”.

Community meeting in Sunda Sar ,Aug 2019, HCR 2019

Community meeting in Sunda Sar ,Aug 2019, HCR 2019

A community leader told HCR’s Hazeen Latif, “we are 3000 houses and an estimated population of 15000 including children and elderly people there is not a single BHU (basic health unit) or even some private clinic. There is no public dispensary.

We only have one primary school for boys - none for girls”.

The list goes on and on.  This is “Sunda Sar” or “skull of bull” meaning a place of prosperity and power. The name was given by someone after they found a huge skull from someone’s land while digging. Nobody knows the real story of the name, but we have seen the real story of life in Sunda Sar during our visit to there in August 2019. Living is so harsh that people’s strength and power of has been drained fighting water-borne diseases, malaria, disability, lack of education and lack of guidance for youth and much more.

 “We have found hope when you said ‘I have brought a gift for you’”.  

This response to our visit tells us a new story is beginning in Sunda Sar. Everyone was stunned to see the mini collar microphone in Hazeen’s hand and to hear:

“It is a gift to the whole community. We will help you use it to raise your voice, we want you to have the power to speak and be heard”.

Hazeen with collar microphone, Sunda Sar, Aug 2019, HCR 2019

Hazeen with collar microphone, Sunda Sar, Aug 2019, HCR 2019

The community welcomed us, and beyond our expectations over two dozen men including key leaders showed up to meet with us.

There was one graduate in the group and three undergraduates, but all found hope for a way forward through community media training and empowerment. Rather than being defined by what they don’t have, they are encouraged to mobilise the resources and voices that they do have - not empty like a skull, but leaders full of strength like a bull, having courage to live full and healthy lives.   

Men from Sunda Sar, Aug 2019, HCR 2019

Men from Sunda Sar, Aug 2019, HCR 2019